This article shows you how to set up Debian 11 Bullseye on a virtual machine using Oracle VM VirtualBox on Windows PC.
The Debian distribution combines GNU tools, the Linux kernel, and other free software.
Debian GNU/Linux contains many executables, scripts, documentation, and configuration information packages.
The most important thing that distinguishes Debian from other distributions is its package management system. These tools support the system administrator in installing a single package or upgrading the entire system. It is also possible to protect individual packages so they are not updated.
You can test the Debian Linux operating system by installing it on your physical computer or a virtual machine. Running it in a virtual machine first makes sense because it helps you gain experience.
You can follow this video tutorial or the steps below to install the Debian distribution with the VirtualBox virtual machine software developed by Oracle.
Step 1: Run Oracle VM VirtualBox and click the New button to open the wizard.
Step 2: Type and Version fields will be filled automatically when you type Debian in the Name field in the virtual machine wizard. Check that the operating system platform is Linux, and the version is 64 Bit.
Step 3: Configure a minimum virtual memory size of 4GB for Debian.
Step 4: If you are installing Debian for the first time, choose to create a new virtual hard disk in the hard disk settings.
Step 5: Select VDI (VirtualBox Disk Image) as the hard disk file type.
Step 6: Choose to backup the virtual disk as Dynamically Allocated on your physical disk.
Step 7: Do not change the location of the virtual disk and change its size according to your needs.
Step 8: After creating the Debian VM, open its settings and change the Shared Clipboard and Drag’n’Drop properties to Bidirectional from the General / Advanced section.
Step 9: Disable Floppy from the Boot Order list in System / Motherboard settings and upgrade the Optical device to the first place.
Step 10: Determine the number of virtual processors according to the power of your host PC from the motherboard settings to the virtual machine.
Step 11: Enable 3D Acceleration in Display / Screen settings and set Video Memory to 128 MB.
Step 12: Delete the IDE drive from the Storage settings and add an empty SATA optical drive.
Step 13: Enable Host I/O Cache in SATA controls settings and configure virtual disk as SSD.
Step 14: Select the optical drive, click the icon on the right, and click Choose a disk file. Select the Debian 11 image file you downloaded to your PC in the open window.
Step 15: Enable USB 3.0 (xHCI) from USB settings and close the VM wizard.
Step 16: Finally, run the Debian virtual machine for system installation.
Installing Debian 11
Step 1: When you run the VM, click Graphical Install when the Debian GNU/Linux Installer Menu opens.
Step 2: Select the language you want to use, Debian, and then change its location.
Step 3: Select the keyboard layout of your physical computer.
Step 4: Type your hostname and leave the domain name blank.
Step 5: Create a password for your system management account, i.e., root account.
Step 6: Type your full new username and check your username in the next step.
Step 7: Create a new password for your new user account.
Step 8: Select your region for your system clock.
Step 9: On the Partition Disks screen, select Guided – use the entire disk and choose your disk to be partitioned.
Step 10: Select All files in one partition as the schema structure on your selected disk for division.
Step 11: After configuring the virtual disk, continue with the option to finish partitioning and write changes to the disk.
Step 12: Check the changes on the Partition Tables screen and confirm the changes to the disk again.
Step 13: Skip an extra installation media scan and confirm using a network mirror.
Step 14: Select the archive country for your Debian system and then select deb.debian.org for the best Internet connection.
Step 15: Do not type HTTP Proxy information.
Step 16: Select Yes if you approve sending package statistics to Debian developers.
Step 17: Select your desktop environment for Debian distribution in the software selection.
Step 18: Choose to install the GRUB Boot Menu on your virtual disk and when the installation is complete, remove the image from your virtual machine and restart the VM.
Step 19: Log in with the user account you created when the Debian operating system was started.
Step 20: To verify the Debian version, open the terminal and execute the lsb_release -a command.
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