We often use the term Ethernet when the information transfer medium is done over wired computer networks, not over Wi-Fi.
The Ethernet network is a network that meets the standards of both the physical (wired) environment and the way to communicate through it. The standard is determined by IEEE under the number 802.3.
The parameters defined by the Ethernet standard are the electrical and length characteristics of the cable, the use of the carrier in the cable, and how the data frames should be at the physical level.
Network protocols are beyond the definition of Ethernet, which includes only a physical form of connection.
In this way, we can build an Ethernet network that works with IPv4, IPv6, NetBEUI, or AppleTalk among others, but the most popular is version 4 or version 6.
Initially, the cables were coaxial, then twisted pair and fiber optic.
This led to an increase in network speed and the release of various revisions of the standard, the last one is currently in 2006, some developments are in the process of standardization.
Historically, the technology of Ethernet networks appeared in the early 70s of the last century by a series of coincidences and became a way to standardize networking.
Like many other discoveries in the computer world, its origin lies in Xerox PARC and in the work of Robert Metcalfe.
This later became the founder of 3Com, one of the most famous companies in terms of networked devices, by HP in 2010.
The principle of use is based on the transmission of information in packets so that if one is lost, there are mechanisms for detecting that loss and transmitting the undelivered package.
At the same time, collisions between packets are avoided, that is, all computers spread simultaneously across the media.
Initially, these packets were sent from the medium (cable) to all other computers to distinguish whether the information was addressed to them.
Evolution in wiring and different network topologies brought by the condensing elements allowed selective transmission of information without collapsing the network as before.
Ethernet is not the only way to set up a local network, but it is the most popular, known, and used method.
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